Groundbreaking Work Ignored?

Photograph of Charles H. Turner from 1902

One hundred years of progress stymied because of racism. The story of Charles Turner (b. 1867, died: 1923) is not just a tragedy of science way ahead of its time, but also the degradation of racism.

Racism is awful, and there will be much work to do to make things right. Charles Henry Turner was a biologist who pioneered animal cognition in ways that are now mainstream. I'm just now learning of his work via

Sharing these stories and building on the work is one way to start making things better by working against racism. Image of Charles H. Turner in public domain by unknown photographer, 1902, sourced from Wikimedia.